Kamis, 01 Desember 2011

Reinforcement Theory

            The reinforcement approach to motivation is almost the antithesis of cognitive theories, since it does not concern it self with the thought processes of the individual as an explanation of behavior. The best-known approach to reinforcement theory, sometimes also called operant conditioning theory of behaviorism, was pionered by psychologist B. F. Skinner. According to reinforcement theory, our behavior can explained by consequences in the environment, and therefore it is not necessary to look for cognitive explanations. Instead, the theory relies heavily on a concept called the law of effect, which states that behaviors having pleasant or positive concequences are more lkely to be repeated and behavior having unpleasant or negative concequences are less likely to be repeated.

            In the reinforcement process, a stimulus provides a cue for a response or behavior that is then followed by a consequences. If we find the consequence rewarding, we are more likely to repeat the behavior when the stimulus occurs in the future. If we do not find it rewarding, we are less likely to repeat the behavior.


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