Selasa, 27 September 2011

Job Description

Job description is a written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are. You use this information to write a job specification; this lists the knowledge, abilities, and skills required to perform the job satisfactorilly.

            There is no standart format for writing a job description. However, most description contain sections that cover:

1.     Job identification
2.     Job summary
3.     Responsibilities and duties
4.     Authority of incumbent
5.     Standarts of performance
6.     Working conditions
7.     Job specification

Read more »

Selasa, 20 September 2011

Job Analysis

Organizations consist of positions that have to be staffed. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of these positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them. Job analysis produces information used for writing job description and job specification.
            The supervisor or HR specialist normally collects one or more of the following types of information via the job analysis:
1.     Work activities
2.     Human behaviors
3.     Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
4.     Performance standarts
5.     Job context
6.     Human requirements

Read more »

Jumat, 09 September 2011


            Demographics are the characteristics of people composing work groups, organizations, countries or specific markets, such as individuals betwen the ages of 18 and 25. Changing demographics play an important role in marketing, human resources management, finance and other areas.

            Employers are likely to face pressures from increasingly diverse work force. They will meet with other employees who comes from various region and various age. Some organizations are providing training to encourage employees to be more tolerant of language, age, race, and ethnic differences, to identify and reject racial and gender preferences in hiring and promotion, and to be responsive to the handicapped.

Read more »

Minggu, 04 September 2011

Communication Skills

Comunication skills are the abilities to send and recieve information, thoughts, feelings, and atiitudes. The ten managerial roles assume that managers have at least basic written, oral, and nonverbal communication skills. Because managers spend a large portion of their time communicating, recruiters look for people who can communicate effectively. A common complaint is that profesional program in universities spend too much time developing student’s technical skills and not enough time developing their communication skills. In fact the importance of good commuication skills cannot be stressed enough. At a time when organization increasingly expect employees to work with minimal supervision and to show more initiative competent communication skills are becoming a must.

            The need to productively emploey workers of both sexes and varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds puts a further premium on communication. Manging diversity, after all, isn’t just adapting to the new realities of the U.S. labor force, it also means ensuring that all workers contribute their best ideas and efforts in an intensely competitive global arena. But it isn’t always easy to evaluate the qualifications and performance of workers whose cultural background and languages are unfailiar to you. The following insught lists some pitfalls to avoid in communicating with a diverse group of people.

Read more »

Conceptual Skills

Conceptual skills involve viewing the organization as a whole and applying  one’s planning and thinking abilities. Managers with good conceptual skills are able to see how the organization’s various departement and function relate to one another, how changes in one departement can affect other departement. They use conceptual skills to diagnose and assess different type and management problems that might result.

            Conceptual skills are among the most difficult to develope because they involve the way one think. To use conceptual skills well requires thinking in terms of relative priorities, rather than ironclad objectives and criteria, relative chances and probabilities, rather than certainties, and rough correlations and overall patterns, rather than clear-cut, cause-and-effect relationship. Conceptual skills are especially importantto the manager’s decisional roles of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator. All of which require an ability to scan the environment for trends. Conceptual skills are needed by all managers, but especially top manager. They must percieve change in the organization’s environment and respon to them promptly by making right decision.

Read more »

Interpersonal Skills

             Interpersonal skills include the abillity to lead, motivate, manage conflict, and work with others. Whereas technical skills involve working with things (techniques or physical object), interpersonal skills focus in working with people. Because every organization’s most valuable resource is people, interpersonal skills are a key part of every manager’s job, regardless of level (from supervisor to vice president) or function (from production to marketing and finance).
            A manager with excellent interpersonal skills encourages participation in decision making and lets subordinates express themselves without fear humiliation. A manager with good interpersonal skills likes other people and is liked by them. Managers who lack effective interpersonal skills can be rude, abrupt, and unsymphathetic, making others feel inadequate and resentful.

Read more »