Selasa, 22 November 2011

Goal-Setting Theory

            While goal setting is originally viewed as a technique, it is developing into a motivational theory as researchers attempt to better understand the cognitive factors that influence its succes. Goal-setting experts argue that goal setting works by directing attention and action, mobilizing effort, increasing persistence, and encouraging the development of strategies to achieve the goals. Feedback regarding result is also an essential element. The succes of goal setting in motivating performance depends on establishing goals that have the appropriate atributes, or characteristics. In particular, goals should be specific and measureable, chalalenging, attainable, relevant to the major work of the organization, and time-limited.
            Goal commitment, one’s attachment to determination to reach a goal, is another important element in the goal setting process. Goal commitment is affected by the major components of expectancy theory: effort-performance expectancy (can i reach the goal?), performance-outcomes expectancy ( if i reach, will i be rewarded?), and valence ( do i value the potential rewards?). Individuals are more likely to be commited to attaining goals when they have high expectaion of succes in reaching the goals, see strong connections between goal accomplishment and rewards and value the rewards. Hence expectancy theory and goal setting theory are largely compatible. The usefulness of goal setting in enhancing performance has strong research support. As a result, managers are likely to find it a very helpful motivational tool.


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