Rabu, 16 November 2011

Expectancy Theory Victor H. Vroom


The expectancy theory of motivation, originally proposed by Victor H. Vroom, argues that we consider three main issues before we expend the effort necessary to perform at a given level. 
            When we consider effort-performance (EàP) expectancy, we assess the probability that our effort will lead to the required performance level. Our assessment may include evaluating our own abilities, as well as considering the adequacy of contextual factors such as the availability of resource. To see effort-performance expectancy works, imagine that you are well qualified for the project and that the  available resources are adequate, you might assess the probability of your effort leading to high performance (the E-P expectancy) quite high.
            With performance-outcome (PàO) expectancy, we assess the probability that our succesful performance will lead to certain outcomes. The major outcomes we consider are potential rewards (such as a bonus or a good feeling of accomplishment), although we are likely also to take into account possible negative result (such as loss of leisure time or family diruption).  In any given situation, there may be many potential rewards associated with performance. Reward provided by others, such as bonuses, or promotion are known as extrinsic rewards. In other hand, rewards that are related to our own internal experiences with succesful performance, such as feelings of achievement, challange, and growth, are known as intrinsic rewards. Considering various possible outcomes (both positive and negative), we form an assessment of the probability of our performance’s leading to desired outcomes. If our assessment of the P-O expectancy is high, the expectancy will contribute to our motivation. If our assessment is low, the expectancy could have a detrimental effect on our willingness to perform at a high level.
            With the valence component, we assess the anticipated value of various outcomes. If the available rewards interest us, valence will be high. However, the valeu of possible negative outcomes, such as the loss of leisure time or diruption of our family, may offset the valeu of rewards in a given situation. The available rewards will have a motivating effect only when we attach a high overall valence to the situation.



Posting Komentar